There are a few different types of sinks in your home or office. There are a few distinguishing differences between them and the plumbing that they connect to is similar. Most sinks catch the water from a faucet that mixes hot and cold water delivering through an aerator and allow direct connection to the drainage system in a sanitary fashion to allow the sink bowl to drain into the sanitary sewer system.
The drain in the sink bowl most likely operated by a push/pull rod that extends from the faucet down to the lever on the drain connection at the base of the sink.
This is the drainage fitting that keeps the smell from coming out of the sink drain. These fittings are either 1 1/4" or 1 1/2" and the most common will be tubular pvc with compression type nuts and washers. However union traps and glue traps can be used when installed with a pee-trap adapter.
The decorative device that mixes the hot and cold water then delivers through an aerator into the sink.
The physical distance between the rim of the sink and the spout of the faucet to prevent back siphonage.
Most sinks have a hole at the top of the sink bowl to allow water to drain in the event the faucet is left on and the drain stopper is closed.
These sink bowls mount to the top of the counter top. These vessel sink bowls require a special faucet to accommodate the height of the sink above the counter top.
These Sinks encompass the back splash, faucet mount and the sink bowl. They are mounted on a bracket that is mounted to the wall.
Self rimming sinks require a hole for the sink to sit through the counter, the sink is hanging through from the counter top.
This type of sink is mount to the under side of the counter top. The counter top is above the sink.